B-T-E’s Patented CO2 Conversion Technology to Syngas to Energy

An economical commercial process is needed to provide an incentive for the utility industries to engender win-win support for Governmental regulations on Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Current approach to mitigating CO2 emissions is carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) which involves CO2 capture followed by CO2 sequestration involving costly CO2 compression, transportation, underground storage and/or used for Crude Oil recovery from reservoirs.

Alternative proprietary patented processes, both non-catalytic process as well as a catalytic process, have been developed for mitigating CO2 emissions which solidifies the aims of both parties, i.e., industry and government. Both processes, the “non-catalytic” process and the “catalytic” process by B-T-E were developed for mitigating CO2 emissions from industrial plants by conversion to fuels. B-T-E’s patented CO2 conversion processes convert CO2 into Syngas (CO & H2) with further conversion to fuels such as Gasoline, Diesel, Jet Fuel, Hydrogen, Methanol, and/or Ethanol with established mature technologies. The patented technology for the conversion of CO2 to Syngas was developed by B-T-E and has seven (7) U.S. patents, one (1) Japanese patent, European Patent (EP) patents, one (1) India patent, one (1) Brazil patent, and other patents pending. B-T-E’s proprietary “catalytic” technology is referred to as the patented SMR+® process.

B-T-E has spent about 10 years in the development of the patented CO2 conversion technology to syngas (CO & H2) and potential commercial applications. Originally, thermodynamic computations by Dr. Gary Young of Bio-Thermal-Energy Inc. determined that CO2 could be converted into syngas with a carbonaceous material and steam at proper process conditions using gasification.B-T-E has continued development of this novel proprietary technology which currently has shown to be a game changer for the energy industry and will be shown as the process whether it be the catalytic or non-catalytic. B-T-E, Inc. owns and holds the rights to the Patented B-T-E CO2 Conversion Technology.

Some applications of using B-T-E’s Patented CO2 Conversion Technology are as follows to mention a few:

  1. Carbon dioxide (CO2) from Stack gas emissions of Coal-fired Power Plants converted to Gasoline,
  2. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fermenters of Corn-Ethanol Plants converted into Ethanol without using additional Corn, and
  3. Landfill Gas – LFG (Carbon dioxide- CO2 & Methane– CH4) from Landfills converted to  Ethanol.

B-T-E’s CO2 Conversion Technology as applied over-all whether using the Catalytic or Non-catalytic approach for the production of energy:

As an introduction to B-T-E’s Patented CO2 Conversion Technology to Syngas (CO & H2), the following chemistry representation is where the Carbon dioxide (CO2) is from an industrial source:

CO2 + Carbonaceous material + H2O → Gasifier or Reformer → Syngas (CO & H2)

whereby:

  1. if the Carbonaceous material is a gas, solid and/or liquid, the process is “non-catalytic” and a Gasifier can be used; biomass solids, Coal such as lignite, lignin, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Corn stover, switch grass, Landfill gas, etc.,
  2. if the Carbonaceous material is a gas, such as Natural gas (CH4), and/or some liquids, the process is “catalytic” and a Reformer is used with conventional Reformer and catalysts.

Further processing of the Syngas (CO & H2) is done using a proven well-established commercial process to produce fuels such as Gasoline, Diesel, Jet Fuel, Methanol, Ethanol, etc., as illustrated:

Syngas (CO & H2) → Fuels (Gasoline, Diesel, Jet Fuel, Methanol, Ethanol, etc.)

The over-all process is illustrated as:

CO2 + Carbonaceous Material + H2O → Syngas (CO & H2) → Fuels

and with B-T-E’s patented SMR+® (Steam-Methane Reforming-plus) technology, U.S. Patent 9,212,059, as applied to making Gasoline, for example:

CO2 + CH4 (Natural gas) + H2O → Reformer [Syngas (CO & H2)] → Fischer-Tropsch (Gasoline)

The over-all process including B-T-E’s CO2 Conversion Technology with Syngas further converted to Fuels/Energy is illustrated below:

B-T-E's Patented CO<sub>2</sub>Conversion Technology

Examples for the application of B-T-E’s patented CO2 conversion are presented below for the products gasoline and Ethanol.

  • Example A is Coal-fired CO2 emissions to produce Gasoline using B-T-E’s CO2 Catalytic technology.
  • Example B is Coal-fired CO2 emissions to produce Gasoline using B-T-E’s CO2 Non-Catalytic technology.
  • Example C is CO2 emissions from a Corn-Ethanol plant to produce additional Ethanol without using more Corn.
  • Example D is Landfill Gas (CO2 & CH4) emissions from a Landfill to produce Ethanol.

Example A:  B-T-E’s CO2 Opportunity, Patented "Catalytic" SMR+® Technology; Converting CO2 Emissions from Coal-fired Power Plants to Gasoline

The Process

Figure below provides a pictorial representation of the B-T-E technology as used for the conversion of CO2 emissions from a representative coal-fired power plant (790 MW) to gasoline, with an estimated production of 137,200 barrels/day using B-T-E’s SMR+® “Catalytic” Technology.

Carbon dioxide Conversion to Gasoline using B-T-E’s SMR+<sup>®</sup> “catalytic” Technology Carbon dioxide Conversion to Gasoline using B-T-E’s SMR+® “catalytic” Technology

Step 1 – Capturing Emissions

Coal-fired stack gas emissions are sent to a carbon dioxide capture plant to remove CO2 from the stack gas. The stack gas is comprised mainly of Nitrogen (about 70% vol.), water, CO2 (about 20%), and impurities of SO2, NOx, and mercury. CO2 capture system can recover up to about 90% of the CO2 from the stack gas such as by Shell Oil Company CO2 capture system.

Step 2 – Conversion to Syngas

CO2 is then converted to Syngas (mostly CO & H2) with B-T-E’s proprietary technology in a CO2-to-Syngas process plant. Note, B-T-E’s novel technology has been proven experimentally on a gasification pilot plant with a capacity of 12.5 TPD (tons per day). Pilot plant tests have experimentally verified a reduction of CO2 of about 70 percent, with significant improvements anticipated with further optimization.

This second step involves B-T-E’s patented SMR+® catalytic technology. Carbon dioxide (CO2), natural gas (methane, CH4), and steam are fed to a Reformer to produce Syngas as illustrated below:

CO2+ Methane (CH4) + Steam (H2O) → Syngas (CO & H2)

Note, this step uses the typical Steam-Methane Reformer process but B-T-E’s SMR+® process utilizes an independent external supply of Carbon dioxide (CO2), U.S. Patent 9,212,059.

Step 3 – Conversion to Gasoline

Syngas is then fed to a syngas-to-gasoline plant for the conversion of syngas to gasoline, such as by using ExxonMobil’s GTL (gas to liquids) process, as illustrated:

Syngas (CO & H2) → Gasoline

The Economics:

With B-T-E’s patented SMR+® catalytic process coupled with CO2 Capture process and GTL process to Gasoline, the over-all process to convert CO2 emissions from a coal-fired power plant into Gasoline becomes:

CO2 + Methane (CH4) + Steam (H2O) → Syngas (CO & H2) → Gasoline

Figure below illustrates the overall economics of using carbon dioxide emissions from a representative 790-MW coal-fired power plant to produce gasoline, using B-T-E’s patented SMR+® "Catalytic" proprietary technology, in terms of gasoline production costs as a function of the wholesale natural gas price and retail industrial rate for electricity.

NOTE: The cost of Post Combustion Carbon Capture (CO2 capture) is included in the production cost of Gasoline.

CO<sub>2</sub>Emissions from 790 MW Coal-fired Power Plant

A 790 MW Coal-fired Power Plant with stack gas emissions of about 775 tons/hr can produce about 137,200 barrels/day of Gasoline at a production cost of $0.58/gallon gasoline with Natural gas at $2.00/MMBtu and electricity at $0.0500/kWh using B-T-E’s patented SMR+® "Catalytic" Technology. Thus, CO2-Gasoline has a production cost of $0.58/gallon gasoline using SMR+® "Catalytic" technology. In comparison, the production cost of Gasoline from the traditional Crude Oil-to-Gasoline refinery would be about $1.26/gallon gasoline with Crude Oil selling between $30-$60/barrel. Thus, it indicates that with the unique and patented SMR+® "catalytic" process, CO2-to-Gasoline process is competitive with the Crude-to-Gasoline process. Note, about 6.46 lbs of CO2 Stack Gas emissions from a Coal-fired Power Plant are used to produce a gallon of Gasoline.

Even with Natural Gas cost at $4.00/MM BTU, the production cost is about $0.98/gallon of gasoline.

Also, Tailgas from the CO2-Gasoline Plant produces 708 MW of Utility Power as Net Export to the GRID.

As a reminder, Production Cost of Gasoline “includes” the cost of Post Combustion Carbon Capture (CO2 capture). The Coal-fired Power Plant just supplies the Stack Gas to the CO2-Gasoline Plant.

The conversion of Carbon dioxide (CO2) from the stack gas emissions of a Coal-fired Power Plant to Gasoline using B-T-E Patented SMR+® "Catalytic"Conversion Technology was published in Hydrocarbon Processing, i.e., “Mitigate CO2 emissions from industrial plants by conversion to fuels,” HP Special Focus | Clean Fuels, G. C. Young, Bio-Thermal-Energy, Inc., Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Hydrocarbon Processing | FEBRUARY 2017.

Example B: B-T-E’s CO2 Opportunity, Patented CO2 Conversion "Non-catalytic" Technology; Converting CO2 Emissions from Coal-fired Power Plants to Gasoline

The Process

Figure below provides a pictorial representation of the B-T-E "Non-catalytic" technology as used for the conversion of CO2 emissions from a representative coal-fired power plant (790 MW) to gasoline, with an estimated production of 237,600 barrels/day.

Carbon dioxide Conversion to Gasoline using B-T-E’s Gasification “non-catalytic” Process Technology

Step 1 – Capturing Emissions

Coal-fired stack gas emissions are sent to a carbon dioxide capture plant to remove CO2 from the stack gas. The stack gas is comprised mainly of Nitrogen (about 70% vol.), water, CO2 (about 20%), and impurities of SO2, NOx, and mercury. CO2 capture system can recover up to about 90% of the CO2 from the stack gas such as by Shell Oil Company CO2 capture system.

Step 2 – Conversion to Syngas

CO2 is then converted to Syngas (mostly CO & H2) with B-T-E’s proprietary technology in a CO2-to-Syngas process plant. Note, B-T-E’s novel technology has been proven experimentally on a gasification pilot plant with a capacity of 12.5 TPD (tons per day). Pilot plant tests have experimentally verified a reduction of CO2 of about 70 percent, with significant improvements anticipated with further optimization.

This second step involves B-T-E’s patented gasification non-catalytic technology. Carbon dioxide (CO2), natural gas (methane, CH4), and steam are fed to a Gasifier to produce Syngas as illustrated below:

CO2 + Methane (CH4) + Steam (H2O) → Syngas (CO & H2)

Step 3 – Conversion to Gasoline

Syngas is then fed to a syngas-to-gasoline plant for the conversion of syngas to gasoline, such as by using ExxonMobil’s GTL (gas to liquids) process, as illustrated:

Syngas (CO & H2) → Gasoline

The Economics:

With B-T-E’s patented non-catalytic process technology coupled with CO2 Capture process and GTL process to Gasoline, the over-all process to convert CO2 emissions from a coal-fired power plant into Gasoline becomes:

CO2 + Methane (CH4) + Steam (H2O) → Syngas (CO & H2) → Gasoline

Figure below illustrates the overall economics of using carbon dioxide emissions from a representative 790-MW coal-fired power plant to produce gasoline, using B-T-E’s patented “Non-catalytic” gasification process technology, in terms of gasoline production costs as a function of the wholesale natural gas price and retail industrial rate for electricity.

NOTE: The cost of Post Combustion Carbon Capture (CO2 capture) is included in the production cost of Gasoline.

A 790 MW Coal-fired Power Plant with stack gas emissions of about 775 tons/hr can produce about 237,600 barrels/day of Gasoline at a production cost of $0.97/gallon gasoline with Natural gas at $2.00/MMBtu and electricity at $0.0550/kWh using B-T-E’s Patented "Non-Catalytic" Technology. Thus, CO2-Gasoline has a production cost of $0.97/gallon gasoline using B-T-E’s patented non-catalytic gasification process technology. In comparison, the production cost of Gasoline from the traditional Crude Oil-to-Gasoline refinery would be about $1.26/gallon gasoline with Crude Oil selling between $30-$60/barrel. Thus, it indicates that with the unique and patented B-T-E’s "non-catalytic" process, CO2-to-Gasoline process is competitive with the Crude-to-Gasoline process. Note, about 6.46 lbs of CO2 Stack Gas emissions from a Coal-fired Power Plant are used to produce a gallon of Gasoline.

Even with Natural Gas cost at $4.00/MM BTU, the production cost is about $1.26/gallon of gasoline.

Example C: B-T-E’s CO2 Opportunity, Patented CO2 Conversion Technology; Converting CO2 Emissions from Corn-Ethanol Plants to Additional Ethanol

Before discussing details, let us review the over-all application of B-T-E’s patented SMR+® "catalytic" process technology for the production of Ethanol using the Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the fermenters of a Corn-Ethanol plant. An illustration below shows a Corn-Ethanol plant with a production capacity of 100 MM GPY of Ethanol which produces byproduct CO2 from the fermenters of 37.75 tons/hour CO2, (34.25 tonnes/hour CO2 or 300,000 tonnes/year CO2). The CO2-Ethanol plant can produce another 208.5 MM GPY Ethanol using B-T-E’s patented CO2 Conversion Technology with the byproduct CO2 emissions from the Corn-Ethanol plant.


Corn-Ethanol Plant and a CO2-Ethanol Plant Facility

The facility with a Corn-Ethanol plant and a CO2-Ethanol plant could be known as a Hybrid Ethanol Facility. Corn-Ethanol plant with a capacity for production of 100 MM GPY Ethanol has CO2 emissions of 37.75 tons/hour or (34.25 tonnes/hour CO2 or 300,000 tonnes/year CO2). The CO2-Ethanol plant, using B-T-E’s patented CO2 Conversion Technology, will produce 208.5 MM GPY of Ethanol with a production cost of $0.76/gallon Ethanol and with a Total Investment Capital (TIC) of $583 MM or $2.80 TIC/gallon Ethanol produced. Further details are presented below.

Application of B-T-E’s CO2 Conversion technology to the CO2 emissions from a Corn-Ethanol plant with capacity of 100 MM GPY Ethanol and CO2 emissions of 37.75 tons/hour is as follows.

  1. CO2 emissions from the Corn-Ethanol plant with capacity of 100 MM GPY ethanol: CO2 rate is 37.75 tons/hour, i.e. (34.25 tonnes/hour CO2 or 300,000 tonnes/year CO2). CO2 effluent composition from the fermentors is 98.0% CO2 with a small amount of water vapor and VOC.
  2. CO2 is converted into Syngas (CO & H2) with B-T-E’s patented SMR+® "Catalytic" Technology as:

CO2 + CH4 + H2O → SMR+® Reformer → Syngas (CO & H2)

The CO2 conversion to Syngas using a carbonaceous material (such as CH4, for example) and Steam (H2O) was proven experimentally in a 12.5 TPD pilot plant of Westinghouse in Pennsylvania.

SMR+® was substantiated by Technip Stone & Webster Process Technology, Inc. in a Feasibility Study for B-T-E, Inc. in 2014. SMR+® catalytic process conditions were: 1600 oF and 35 PSIA. Steam-Methane reforming, SMR, is a well-established mature technology that has been optimized for productivity and efficiency over many hears of industrial application.

The SMR+® process uses heat, pressure, steam, and catalysts to break methane and CO2 into CO and H2(Syngas) for further processing.

  1. Syngas (CO & H2) is further fermented to Ethanol

Syngas (CO + H2) → fermentation → Ethanol

Syngas to Ethanol was accomplished by biological fermentation of syngas to Ethanol per an available commercial process. With clean gaseous feedstocks, (CO2, CH4, and H2O) to the Reformer, the Syngas produced is expected to be of relatively clean quality when compared to processes using biomass feedstocks. Other biological fermentation processes are available.

Economics of CO2-Ethanol Production Using B-T-E’s Patented CO2 Conversion Technology

As mentioned previously, Corn-Ethanol plant with a capacity for production of 100 MM GPY Ethanol has a CO2 emissions of 37.75 tons/hour or (34.25 tonnes/hour CO2 or 300,000 tonnes/year CO2). The CO2-Ethanol plant, using B-T-E’s patented CO2 Conversion Technology, will produce 208.5 MM GPY of Ethanol with a production cost of $0.76/gallon Ethanol and with a Total Investment Capital (TIC) of $583 MM or $2.80 TIC/gallon Ethanol produced.

Note: SMR+® is a U.S. trademark of B-T-E, Inc.

Example D: B-T-E’s CO2 Opportunity, Patented CO2 Conversion Technology; Converting Landfill Gas (LFG) (CO2 & CH4 emissions from a Landfill to Ethanol

Bio-Thermal-Energy, Inc. (B-T-E, Inc.) has developed a Patented CO2 Conversion Technology which can be used to convert Landfill Gas (CO2 & CH4) into Syngas (CO & H2) which is further fermented, using a well-established commercial process, to Ethanol. The process is simply illustrated as:

Landfill Gas (CO2 & CH4)→Reformer→Syngas (CO & H2)→Fermentation→Ethanol

Plus MW of Utility Power for Net Export to the GRID.

With a site-specific application, Bio-Thermal-Energy, Inc. desires to conduct a feasibility study for Cedar Rapids Linn County Solid Waste Agency, Site #2, Landfill Gas to Ethanol, i.e., LFG-Ethanol plant at Site-2. LFG-Ethanol plant capacity/size is based upon Landfill Gas rates from a recent study, September 13, 2018, by SCS Engineers for CRLCSWA Site 2 Landfill, Projected Landfill Gas recovery rates, File NO. 27217406.00.

The Bio-Thermal-Energy Process for converting Landfill Gas (LFG) to Ethanol is further shown as:

Landfill Gas to Ethanol:

  1. Landfill Gas is fed to the Reformer or Gasifier.
  2. Reformer or Gasifier converts the Landfill Gas to Syngas (CO & H2) using B-T-E’s Patented CO2 Conversion Technology.
  3. Syngas is fermented to Ethanol using a well-established commercial process.

Basic Process Chemistry:  LFG to Syngas followed by “fermentation” to Ethanol  

LFG (CO2 + CH4) → Syngas (CO & H2) → “fermentation to Ethanol”

C  +  CO2          →        2  CO        [Boudouard Reaction]

C  +  H2O         →         CO  +  H2

CO  +  H2O       →        H2   +  CO2   [Water-Gas Shift Reaction]

CnHm  +  n H2O    →     n CO  +  (n + 1/2m) H2

Note:  B-T-E’s CO2 Conversion Technology was verified “experimentally” in a 12.5 ton/day Pilot Plant.

Note: B-T-E, Inc. owns and holds the rights to the Patented B-T-E CO2 Conversion Technology with 22 Patents and Patents Pending for protecting business ventures.

B-T-E’s Technology used for producing Ethanol from Landfill Gas (LFG), i.e., LFG-Ethanol, is “new” highly profitable technology for supporting effective waste management such as environmentally “capture of more Landfill Gas from the Landfill for the public good.”   Linn County, City of Cedar Rapids, CRLCSWA, City of Marion, and Business/Investors could use the positive net annual revenue from the LFG-Ethanol plant for the benefit of the environment and community.  

Preliminary economics was done for producing Ethanol from the Landfill Gas (LFG) at site-2, Landfill, Cedar Rapids Linn County Solids Waste Agency (CRLCSWA).   Summary of Preliminary Analysis for Site-2 using Landfill Gas to Ethanol Plant at various Landfill Gas (LFG) capacities such as 600 scfm, 1200 scfm, 1600 scfm, and 1800 scfm are listed below with Ethanol selling price of $1.2770/gal., Natural gas cost at $2.733/MMBtu, Electricity at $0.0693 /kw-hr.  A subsidy for RINs at $0.5330, D5 (“Other” Adv. Bio) was used where applicable.

As shown in the table below are the preliminary economics of a Landfill Gas-to-Ethanol Plant at various capacities for Landfill site-2 which can be installed.  For example at a plant capacity of 600 scfm of Landfill Gas (LFG), the LFG-Ethanol plant can be profitable with the existing subsidy for Ethanol and produce 10.19 MM GPY Ethanol with a Totally Installed Plant Cost (TIC) of $95.3MM.   

Landfill Gas (LFG) from Site-2 according to SCS Engineers was about 800 scfm “recovery from existing/planned system” for year-2019 and 1,200 scfm for “recovery potential.” Landfill Gas “recovery potential” is between 1,200 scfm – 1,600 scfm between year-2019 – year-2030. Landfill Gas at Site-2 should be near 1,200 scfm by the latter half of year-2019.

The 600 scfm LFG-Ethanol plant can be expanded profitably to recover more LFG for production of Ethanol.  As shown, the plant can be expanded over time as needed by an incremental amount to recover 1800 scfm or more of LFG as Ethanol, profitably.   Also, the LFG-Ethanol plant generates the funds for increasing the recovery of Landfill Gas (LFG) from the Landfill which increases the economy of scale for the LFG-Ethanol plant, i.e., a win-win situation.

In addition, Leachate from the Landfill can be recycled to the Landfill creating additional Landfill Gas (CO2 & CH4) for production of additional Ethanol and reducing the need to truck Leachate to a Waste Treatment Plant for processing and final disposal of solids to a landfill.

Consequently with recycle of Leachate, the following preliminary technical and economic analysis “should be exceeded” for LANDFILL Site-2 of Cedar Rapids Linn County Solid Waste Agency (CRLCSWA):

LFG          Ethanol & Production Cost     Revenue         Net Revenue   TIC            Payout

1200 scfm  20.37 MM GPY  $0.988/gal.  $26.02 MM/yr  $5.89 MM/yr  $144 MM   24.5 yrs. No RINs subsidy

$36.82 MM/yr  $16.69 MM/yr   8.7 yrs. With RINs subsidy

Note: 3.4 MW Utility Power as Net Export to the GRID.

As another example of the economics of a Landfill using B-T-E’s Patented CO2 Conversion Process for the conversion of Landfill Gas (LFG) to Ethanol, such as at the CRLCSWA Landfill site-2.   From the table above at Landfill Gas LFG rate of 1600 scfm, Ethanol production is 27.17 MM GPY at a Production Cost of $0.888/gallon.   Revenue is $34.69 MM/year and Net Revenue is $10.56 MM/year.  Capital is $172 MM (TIC, Totally Installed Cost) at 6% for 20 years.   Payout is 16.2 years with no subsidy considered (no RINs).   With a subsidy considered, Revenue is $49.09 MM/year and Net Revenue is $24.96 MM/year with payout of 6.9 years.   Note, 4.5 MW Utility Power is available as Net Export to the GRID.

A feasibility study would be the next logical step for this technology, i.e. B-T-E’s Patented CO2 Conversion Technology used to produce Ethanol from Landfill Gas (LFG).   Feasibility study would be conducted by a large independent engineering firm, Bio-Thermal-Energy, Inc., Cedar Rapids Linn County Solid Waste Agency, and business/investors.